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The first demonstration of energy teleportation

Teleportation is the ability to send quantum information from one part of the universe to another without traveling through the space in between. By sending all the information that describes a single particle and passing it to another, this second particle acquires all the characteristics of the first.

It is physically indistinguishable from the first, and in a sense becomes the first particle, albeit in a different part of the universe. Hence the name teleportation, first demonstrated in the 1990s.

Today, teleportation is a standard phenomenon in quantum optics laboratories and has become a core technology behind the slowly emerging quantum internet.

Energy Transmission

But it has another use. In the 2000s, a Japanese physicist called Masahiro Hotta of Tohoku University took the idea further suggesting that if teleportation can transmit information, then it should also be able to transmit energy. He went on to develop the theoretical foundation for quantum energy teleportation.

Now, Kazuki Ikeda of Stony Brook University in New York state says he has been able to teleport energy for the first time using an ordinary quantum computer. “We report the first realization and observation of quantum energy teleportation on real quantum hardware,” he says, adding that the ability to teleport energy could have profound implications for the future quantum internet.

The key idea behind quantum energy teleportation is that the energy of any quantum system is constantly fluctuating. These natural energy fluctuations can be exploited at the quantum level.

Hotta originally pointed out that measuring part of a quantum system inevitably injects energy into the system. In the quantum world, this energy can then be extracted from another part of the system without the energy traveling through the space between them. No energy is gained or lost; it is simply transferred.

Proving this idea requires a set of quantum particles that have the same quantum state and are therefore entangled.

These were hard to come by when Hotta developed his ideas. But Ikeda noted that systems of entangled particles have become readily available in recent years, thanks to the advent of quantum computers.

Indeed, IBM’s quantum computers are based on superconducting qubits and can be accessed via the Internet. Ikeda simply wrote the quantum algorithm that puts Hotta’s idea into action and then used IBM’s quantum computer to run it. “The results are consistent with the exact solution of the theory,” he says.

Inside IBM’s quantum computer, Ikeda was only able to teleport energy over distances roughly the size of a computer chip. But he says, after proving the idea, it should immediately be possible to teleport energy over much longer distances.

Quantum networks

He points out that the technology is already available to do this through existing links, such as a 158-kilometer link between Stony Brook University and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Beyond that, it should be possible to teleport energy through a quantum internet once it becomes available, probably in the 2030s, Ikeda says.

That will have profound implications, he says. “The ability to transfer quantum energy over long distances will bring a new revolution in quantum communication technology,” says Ikeda.

He imagines that energy and information will be traded through the quantum internet, with traders choosing where to get it most economically. This will lead to a new science of quantum information economics, he says.

Of course, there are many steps along the way to achieving this, not the least of which will be showing that teleportation can transmit useful amounts of energy. Another interesting question is to what extent energy teleportation is different from information teleportation and where is the difference. This should help separate the deeper nature of the universe and the true roles that information, energy and other primitives play in our reality.

Ref: First Achievement of Quantum Energy Teleportation on Quantum Hardware:

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